|William Booth embarked upon his ministerial
career in 1852, desiring to win the lost multitudes of England to Christ. He walked the
streets of London to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ to the poor, the homeless, the
hungry, and the destitute.
Booth abandoned the
conventional concept of a church and a pulpit, instead taking his message to the people.
His fervor led to disagreement with church leaders in London, who preferred traditional
methods. As a result, he withdrew from the church and traveled throughout England,
conducting evangelistic meetings. His wife, Catherine, could accurately be called a
cofounder of The Salvation Army.
In 1865, William Booth was invited to hold a series of
evangelistic meetings in the East End of London. He set up a tent in a Quaker graveyard,
and his services became an instant success. This proved to be the end of his wanderings as
an indepedent traveling evangelist. His renown as a religious leader spread thoughout
London, and he attracted followers who were dedicated to fight for the souls of men and
Thieves, prostitutes, gamblers, and drunkards were among
Booth's first converts to Christianity. To congregations who were desprately poor, he
preached hope and salvation. His aim was to lead people to Christ and link them to a
church for further spiritual guidance.
Many churches, however, did not accept Booth's followers
because of their past. So Booth continued giving his new converts spiritual direction,
challenging them to save others like themselves. Soon, they too were preaching and singing
in the streets as a living testimony to the power of God.
In 1867, Booth had only 10 full-time workers, but by 1874,
the number had grown to 1,000 volunteers and 42 evangelists, all serving under the name
"The Christian Mission." Booth assumed the title of general superintendent, with
his followers calling him "General." Known as the "Hallelujah Army,"
the converts spread out of the East End of London into neighboring areas and then to other
Booth was reading a printer's proof of the 1878 annual report
when he noticed the statement "The Christian Mission is a volunteer army."
Crossing out the words "volunteer army," he penned in "Salvation
Army." From those words came the basis of the foundation deed of The Salvation Army.
From that point, converts became soldiers of Christ and were
known then, as now, as Salvationists. They launched an offensive throughout the British
Isles, in some cases facing real battles as organized gangs mocked and attacked them. In
spite of violence and persecution, some 250,000 people were converted under the ministry
of The Salvation Army between 1881 and 1885.
Meanwhile, the Army was gaining a foothold in the United
States. Lieutenant Eliza Shirley had left England to join her parents, who had migrated to
America earlier in search for work. In 1879, she held the first meeting of The Salvation
Army in America, in Philadelphia. The Salvationists were received enthusiastically.
Shirley wrote to General Booth, begging for reinforcements. None were available at first.
Glowing reports of the work in Philadelphia, however, eventually convinced Booth, in 1880,
to send an official group to pioneer the work in America.
On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Railton and
seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks
for their safe arrival. At their first official street meeting, these pioneers were met
with unfriendly actions, as had happened in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested,
and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.
Three years later, Railton and other Salvationists had
expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. President
Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the
organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White
House and would be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents.
The Salvation Army movement expanded rapidly to Canada,
Australia, France, Switzerland, India, South Africa, Iceland, and local neighborhood
units. The Salvation Army is active in virtually every corner of the world.
General Booth's death in 1912 was a great loss to The
Salvation Army. However, he had laid a firm foundation' even his death could not deter the
ministry's onward march. His eldest son, Bramwell Booth, succeeded him.
Whether it be a local incident or a major disaster, Salvation
Army staff and volunteers are often the first on the scene and the last to depart,
honoring a century-old commitment to serve those in need, at the time of need, and at the
place of need.
The red shield continues to be a beacon of compassion; of
immediatte aid, psychological support and spiritual counsel to individuals and families
whose lives have been disrupted or shattered by forces beyond their control.